When Gödel died in 1978, he left behind a tantalizing theory based on principles of modal logic — that a higher being must exist. The details of the mathematics involved in Gödel’s ontological proof are complicated, but in essence the Austrian was arguing that, by definition, God is that for which no greater can be…

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…we are not angels, who view the universe from the outside. Instead, we and our models are both part of the universe we are describing. Thus a physical theory is self referencing, like in Godel’s theorem. One might therefore expect it to be either inconsistent or incomplete. The theories we have so far are both…

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Completion of the model can never happen because… the model is within the universe, so in effect the universe would have to be larger than itself. Or you can view it iteratively: the model models the universe. The universe includes the model. The model must model itself. The model must model the model of itself……

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The gnostic Christians acknowledged a supreme being, but their god was not the bumbling, all-too-human creator god of the Bible. The Yahweh of Genesis was wrathful, jealous, particular and vindictive; how could he be the highest form of mind, when he couldn’t even rise to the ethical level of an unusually well-balanced human? Instead, the…

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