Consciousness, Causality, Quantum Physics
In Bohm's model, then, the quantum world exists even when it is not being observed and measured. He rejects the positivist view that something that cannot be measured or known precisely cannot be said to exist. In other words, he does not confuse epistemology with ontology, the map with the territory. For Bohm, the probabilities calculated from the wave function indicate the chances of a particle being at different positions regardless of whether a measurement is made, whereas in the conventional interpretation they indicate the chances of a particle coming into existence at different positions when a measurement is made. The universe is constantly defining itself through its ceaseless interactions — of which measurement is only a particular instance — and absurd situations such as dead-and-alive cats therefore cannot arise.